Renewable energy

Renewable energy opportunities
  1. ­

Coordinated Offshore Energy Extraction system, and

Floating Wind Turbines, Islands and Bridges (COEE&FB)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

(COEE&FB) System

 

Abstract (COEE&FB)

The (COEE&FB) is a coordinated system for extracting renewable offshore energies from: waves, tides, solar, thermal, wind and deep sea cold water form large sea water depths. The system uses simple engineering principles, equipment and materials developed by others and readily available on the market with proven quality and performance. The system consists of the following:

Wave and Tidal Energy

  1. Floating Construction Unit (FCU) used as a building block to support the offshore energy extraction equipment, assembled at the shoreline, floated and towed to location and moored to the sea bed with all equipment ready for installation, and operation. The deck of the (FCU) is located at 6.0 meters above the mean sea water level and can handle waves is excess of 8-meters.
  • A prototype (FCU) for a variable 2.0 m diameter variable buoyant float-1 for 2-sets of buoyant floats, each set consisting of 4-buoyant floats, measures 22.50x7.75 m by 14.5 m deep, excluding the fixed floats below the trough line of the wave.
  • A full scale (FCU) for a variable 2.0 m diameter variable buoyant float-1 for 10-sets of buoyant floats, each set consisting of 4-buoyant floats, measures 22.50x26.75 m by 14.5 m deep, excluding the fixed floats below the trough of the wave.
  1. Buoyant Floats located at the water surface, used as point absorbers following wave undulations to develop a high vertical uplift from the front and lee sides of the wave
  2. The vertical uplift developed by the buoyant floats acts on a continuous pull line fixed to the bottom and top of the buoyant float, wrapped around a power reversing pulley located below the wave trough line and a power pulley located at the dry deck of a “Floating Construction Unit” (FCU) to directly convert the buoyant float up and down movements to unidirectional rotation using sprag-type freewheeling clutches to drive:
  • A direct current electric generator to generate DC electric power and connect it to a common DC bus at the (FCU).
  • A water pump to lift a small quantity of water from low head (wave height), to a much higher head, collects it in a closed circuit piping system and feeds it to a hydro-turbo generator to generate electric power.
  1. Power ripple is compensated for by using an air/water reservoir partially filled with water to provide high pressure air storage during the front side of the wave cycle and discharge high pressure water from the air/water reservoir into the closed circuit piping system during the lee side of the wave cycle; thus providing a continuous supply of high pressure water to the hydro-turbo generator.
  2. Wave Height Attenuation is developed by the physical dimensions of the buoyant floats and their arrangement lead to higher extraction efficiency.
  3. Tidal and wave lee side energies are extracted using shrouded hydro-turbines to drive a water pump or electric generator at the deck of the (FCU).  The (FCU) provides practically a free support for the floating tidal turbines that are located near the water surface where tidal velocity is at maximum.
  4. Solar energy is extracted using the roof of the (FCU) as a supporting structure at level 9.00 or 15.00 meters.
  5. Wind energy is extracted using wind turbines on floating wind turbine supports.
  6. Floating wind turbines are easily developed by staggering the (FCU) units and adding fixed floats below the trough line of the wave, to give a minimum foot print of 46x110 meters (2x22.5+1 m length by 4x26.75+3 meters width) for a 1.6 MW wind turbine.
  7. Floating bridges are achieved by reinforcing the (FCU) units with additional floats below the wave trough line.
  8. Floating islands are a known technology.  What we are providing is the wave, tidal, solar wind and thermal energy extraction systems as part of the floating islands.

Local Manufacturing

This involves close cooperation to provide technology transfer between USA and Europe (Germany) to establish local manufacturing facilities for the following:

  1. Coordinated Offshore Energy Extraction system
  • Direct Drive Wave Energy Extraction
  • Direct Drive Tidal Energy Extraction
  • Floating Support for Solar Energy Extraction
  • Floating Support for Wind Turbines
  • Floating Bridges, Artificial Islands, etc…
  • Details at http://www.renewableenergypumps.com

2.  Wind turbines.

  • As designed by SETEC
  • Details at  http://www.setec-windpower.com

3. Fabrication of (FCU) Units for:

  • Coordinated Offshore Energy Extraction system.
  • Floating Wind Turbine supports.
  • Floating structure for Offshore Solar Energy systems.
  • Floating Bridges and Floating Islands.

4, Variable Speed Electric Generators.

  • As manufactured by VSG-USA
  • Constant output Voltage and Frequency at a wide range of input RPM.
  • Details at http://www.VSG-USA.com and at
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j6fHHnPV0IQ

5. Deep Sea Cold Water, As a medium for Air Conditioning systems.

Calculation, Wave Energy Extraction, Prototype and Full Scale Models

A few years ago, I had reviewed an article by a group of university professors describing wave energy extraction systems using one meter test tank with complex electronics to record energy extraction data.  The following treatise would prove the futility of reduced scale prototypes and test tanks.
 

  • Scaled and Full Scale Models
  1. Outputs for various models are shown in Table-1 below.  The distortion in performance for small scale models is clear.  How can one logically define the performance of a 200 cm Variable Float from a scaled float of 20 cm or 50 cm diameter as shown in the output comparison table?  Even a 150 cm diameter buoyant float, whether fixed or Variable would not provide the true performance of the system.
  • To minimize structural stresses the volumes of the full scale models are kept constant to provide a gross uplift of approximately 2,651 kilograms per buoyant float.
  • To give a true and factual idea of the performance of the (WGD) system, it is necessary to test a full scale model at the project site.
  • Performance of float diameter sizes of 0.20; 0.50; 1.50 and 2.00 meters are shown below  Table-2.­

 2.  The 0.20 meters buoyant float diameter results in a Prototype model measuring 250x165x300 centimeters LxWxDeep, weighing 228 Kg, would develop a gross uplift force of 0.7854 Kg.

 3. Taking into consideration the weights of the buoyant float and the pull line, the friction and electric losses would result in very low total power extraction output efficiency of 3.35%. Extrapolation of data to a full scale model would result in erroneous results.

  • Performance of the buoyant float size is sensitive to sea state, height and duration and to float configuration and is highlighted by increasing the float successive diameters from float-1 to float-4, to extract energy from low height waves.
  • The claim that systems extract energy from waves as low as 0.50 meters cannot be justified.  The available total energy in a 0.50 m wave is 1.125 KW per meter of wave front. Considering a maximum efficiency of 4.35% results in a power output of 9.8 watts per a set or 4-floats, which is not practical.

Outputs, Wave Power and Energy (COEE) – Per Set of Four Generators

The following outputs are for a set of 4-buoyant floats and generators. For a set of 4-buyoant floats and water pumps the figures to be multiplied by a factor of 0.722 to adjust due to reduce efficiency.

The average KW per year is defined as the KW-H output per year divided by 8,760 hours.

Table-1

System Description           Wave Height        Peak Output         Output-KW           Output                   Total

B. Float Diameter               m                            KW                         Average/Yr           KWH/Y                   Efficiency%

20 cm, Fixed                         2                                0.182                    0.0388                   None                      3.35%

50 cm, Fixed                         2                                1.951                    0.3250                   None                      6.95%

150 cm, Fixed                       4                              66.2                        3.09                        27,074                   9.82%

150/100 cm, Variable           4                              68.8                        4.90                        42,822                   13.11%

200/250 cm, Variable           4                              96.9                        9.86                        86,765                   20.41%

150 cm, Fixed                                                207.6                                                                                      14.8%

150/100 cm, Variable                        8              219.6                                                                                      21.7%

200/250 cm, Variable                        8              260.4                                                                                      19.3%

The above data depend upon sea state.

Outputs, Power and Energy (COEE&FB)

A (COEE) “Floating Construction Unit” measuring 22.5x26.75 meters can provide power and energy outputs per year in excess of the following depending on sea and wind states.  The data is based on using electric generators; for water pumps the figures to be multiplied by a factor of 0.722 to adjust the data due to reduced efficiency.

Each (FCU) provides support for ten (10) shrouded 2m diameter hydro-turbines each, feeding 1m diameter hydro-turbine, at a water flow speed of 1 m/second.

The wind turbine has a capacity of 1.6 MW at a wind speed of 12m/sec.  It requires spacing of a minimum of four (4) (FCU)’s that is 400 KW per (FCU).

Table-2

                                                                                         Foot Print              Peak Output         Output/FCU

System Description                                                        meters                  KW/FCU                /Year,     KWH

Wave Energy Ø-2m Variable float, 8m wave                 22.5x26.75               260.4                      864,000

Tidal Energy, six (6) Ø-2m turbine, Tide 1m/sec             4.0x6.00                   24.0                      175,200

Solar Energy, 46% efficiency                                           22.5x26.75             250.0                      730,000

Wind Energy 1,600 KW, Wind 12m/sec                          46.00x110               400.0                   1,118,768

Totals                                                                                                              940.4                   2,887,968

The average output of 12.34 KW/m per year equals total KW-H per year per (FCU) 2,887,968/26.75/8,760 Hours.

The above data depends upon sea and wind states and the available hours of sunshine per year.

Return on Investment - ROI

From the above, it is easy to calculate the Return on Investment (ROI), by estimating the capital cost per KW for each system, and the sale price per KW-Hour of energy produced per year.  The estimated ROI far exceeds fifteen (15%) percent.

Selecting Alternate-II as shown below, would provide enough energy output to make the (COEE&FB) system self-financing.

Capital Requirements

The capital requirements are based on scope of work and the selected local manufacturing facility as shown by attached sketch.  It ranges between 10 and 500 million US$.

The capital requirements depend upon the location of the manufacturing facility, whether totally or partially offshore, the scope of work and the country where it is located.

Funds that would be allocated for testing a prototype might as well be increased to develop a small project by using a small size 1.6 MW wind turbine with a floating support structure.

Recommendations

Two alternate proposals are recommended.  Selection depends on the collaboration of public and private utilities and entities and upon the amount of available financing as follows:

Alternate I

  • Full scale, two (2) sets of 4-buoyant floats with respective Floating Construction Unit (FCU), with a variable buoyant float diameter of 2.0 meters for first float increasing to 2.5 meters for the fourth buoyant float, and two (2) shrouded hydro turbines for lee wave side and tidal energy extraction, with 10-generators and respective rectifiers and inverters, to give a coordinated offshore energy extraction system (COEE); Wave, Tidal, Thermal and Solar.  The solar energy area is approximately 160 SQM for this alternate.

Alternate II

  • Same as Alternate I; but with ten (10) sets of 4-buoyant floats with respective Floating Construction Unit (FCU), with a variable buoyant float diameter of 2.0 meters for first float increasing to 2.5 meters for the fourth buoyant float, and ten (10) shrouded hydro turbines for lee wave side and tidal energy extraction, with 50-generators and respective rectifiers and inverters, to give a coordinated offshore energy extraction system (COEE); Wave, Tidal, Thermal and Solar.  The solar energy area is approximately 600 SQM.
  • One (1) Wind Turbine 1.6 MW, with a Floating Support. By virtue of wind turbine floating support, alternate (1) above would be increased five (5) times at minimal additional cost.
  • This Alternate would result in a full scale model with an offshore floating platform to be used for other purposes, developing energy output that would make the project self-financing, would pay for its maintenance and operation and would be profitable.

This requires collaboration and a power purchase agreement (PPA) with the local electric utility company.

Furthermore, it would result in a local manufacturing industry.

Alternately where abundance of islands is available, and where the prevailing wave direction is transverse with the direction of the floating bridge, a full scale mega project can be achieved by developing a floating bridge to an island.  This would provide full scale project: Wave, Tidal, Solar, Thermal, Wind and a Floating Bridge access.

A visionary decision maker is needed to proceed on such undertakings that would be: American, European (German) and Lebanese.

The information is intended to give a glimpse and difficulties encountered when developing an academic idea into a useful product.  It takes long time and effort to bring an idea to fruition.

Markets, Worldwide

  • The (COEE&FB) system is marketed worldwide to provide the services as listed below:
  • The planned renewable energy market in MENA area exceeds 250,000 MW that is approximately equivalent to a market of 500 Billion US$ in the coming 15-years with associated provision of technical labor. This alone dictates a local manufacturing facility.
  • It is interesting to tie Europe, the Middle East and North Africa by an 800 KV D.C. backbone electric network.  This is being presently investigated by a group of universities to tie European wind farms by a super grid.  A super grid would alleviate the need for energy storage. A lull in wind speed in one area would be compensated by maximum wind energy output in one or more other areas in the domain of the super grid; thereby stabilizing wind farms power output.
  • Similar worldwide areas have the same geographic characteristics as MENA, such as the Gulf States, Malaysia and surroundings.

Road Map

The project may be started as a local test area to execute Alternate I.  A local developer would seek the services of a consultant to review the viability of the (COEE&FB) system, select a site for the project, secure a local contractor for execution of the project and secure appreciable amount of financing from local entities.  Once this is achieved, other investors would step in to provide the rest of the required financing.

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