A. ABSTRACT G. DESIGN Energy Extraction
B. BACKGROUND H. H. DETAILED Energy Extraction
C. PROPOSAL Presentation I. NOVELTIES
D. DESCRIPTION J. UTILIZATION
E. CONSTRUCTION K. Return on Investment (ROI)
F. DESIGN Structure
Miking the ant is extracting energies from; potential, kinetic and horizontal sea waves from, front side, lee side and horizontal forces, tidal at sea water surface and at -6m below MSL, solar at 6m above MSL and floating wind turbines. It is the FloatNRG system.
The “floating Energy System” (FloatNRG) extracts offshore energies from; sea waves, ebb/tidal currents, solar, thermal and wind as one coordinated system. Wave potential, kinetic and horizontal energies are extracted from wave front, wave lee sides and from wave horizontal forces. The FloatNRG system is of modular construction, completely assembled at the shoreline on a floating “Tension Leg Platform” (TLP), floated and towed to location for anchoring to the sea bed beyond 30m depths with all equipment including the wind turbine installed and ready for operation.
For each 6MW wind turbine the (TLP) consists of submerged fixed floats with a foot print of 1,600 square meters, handles waves up to 8m high and storms with wind speeds up to 240 Km per hour and rogue waves exceeding 18m height by developing resisting moments up to 56,525 ton-meters or more; and energy output of 1,779,393 Kwh/year and a volume of 2,217 cubic meters for energy storage as compressed air at each floating wind turbine support,
a. Inventors of FloatNRG system had contributed to the offshore renewable energy extraction systems. Each succeeding system is a natural extension of the previous system and compliments it. A total of five (5) patents had been granted and/or pending:
b. Search was made to study existing offshore energy extraction systems. Wave energy extraction systems exceeded 200. None are viable and a better solution is required.
c. (COEE) is a “Coordinated Floating Energy Extraction Equipment” system including floating wind turbine supports, floating causeway and floating islands consists of four (4) pending patents.
d. Patent and Development of the “Coordinated Offshore Energy Extraction Equipment”-(COFEQ) started in 2004 as a study for extracting energy from sea waves was granted on June 24. 2008 No. US 7,391,127 B2.
a. Real Estate Rarity and its high costs, access roads and environmental considerations led to using offshore locations energy extraction due to abundance; as sea waves, tidal, solar and wind.
b. Higher Wind Speeds with higher energy are available far away from the shoreline.
c. Higher Wave Heights with higher energy are available far away from the shoreline.
d. Mono Pile Supports of wind turbines are limited to 30m seabed depths due to cost.
Is a “Floating Energy Extraction” system developed to meet the above requirements with the following characteristics;
a. Coordin d Energy Extraction system from; sea wave, ebb/tides, solar and wind.
b. High Waves up to 8m high including ebb/tides to be easily handled.
c. Rogue Waves 18m high and above to be easily handled.
d. Storm Resistant with wind speeds up to 250m per hour to be easily handled and a factor of safety as required by local Codes.
e. Floating Structure “Tension Leg Platform” (TLP) to support all energy extraction systems beyond 30m sea depths. .
f. An (FCU)-A to be provided with hermetically sealed and ventilated dry space with a deck 6m above “Mean Sea Level” (MSL) to handle 8m High Waves plus one meter high tides or more.
g. Modular Construction Units assembled at the shoreline, floated and towed to location for anchoring to the sea bed with all equipment installed and ready for operation
h. Assembly at the Shoreline with minimum cutting and/or welding, floated and towed to location for anchor to the seabed with all equipment installed and ready for operation.
C. SYSTEM PRESENTATION
The FloatNRG system is presented in two (2) files.
1. FloatNRG Complete Description with Drawings,
2. FloatNRG XLS File (2-Sheets, .pdf or Active),
Once variable data is entered, the XLS automatically calculates system performance.
· Sheet-1; provides system Dimensions, Weights, Loads, Moments, Power and Energy Outputs for single 6MW floating wind turbine support and for 250 meter spacing between wind turbine supports, for wind turbine farms rated; 30MW nominal, actual (46.108 MW) and for 60MW nominal, actual (96.242MW). .
· Sheet-2, provides Wave Energy Extraction detailed calculation for different sizes of “buoyant floats” (BF), with diameters 1.0, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.00m, at (0.5 to 8.0m) wave heights with respective durations per year for sea waves, ebb/tides, solar and wind energy extraction.
· Data Entry to be made only at cells with background. Color as .
· Calculation of respective data is automatically performed for different data entry.
· Formulae used are shown on respective Sheets.
· Locked Formulae are provided for protection against inadvertent data entry.
· Modifications, if necessary to be made by copying File-2 to a new file where modifications are made. This way the integrity of the XLS File-2 is preserved.
File-2 “Calculation” is available upon request.
Several Configurations of the (TLP) are possible. Although the shown configuration is not the most efficient, it provides modularity and ease of assembly and construction and can be easily modified.
· Materials are all locally available with proven quality and performance. This proposal is based on high strength steel reinforced marine concrete with all other elements made of marine steel.
· Construction; The FloatNRG system consists of a submerged “Tension Leg Platform” (TLP) developing sufficient uplift to support the weights of wind turbine and energy extraction equipment and moments to resist storms with wind speeds up to 240 Km per hour including rogue waves exceeding 18m height, with a factor of safety as required by local Codes.
· (FXFL), “Fixed Floats” are hollow cuboids submerged with their tops at 6m below “Mean Sea Level” (MSL). Their dimensions and layout depend on wind turbine rating, local Code requirements and project size and location. They are interlocked to form a (TLP) rigid structure.
· Air/Water Hoses extending from each (FXFL) to the deck of (FCU)-A are provided to sink and position the (FXFL) to the required level by filling them with water, or compressed air. .
· (FCU)-D is a dummy unit providing support for solar (PV) cells, for (FCU)-A and for vehicular causeway. They are 2-units stacked and fixed to the top of the (TLP).
Ø No PV cells are provided at the roof of (FCU)-D at areas with rough seas with rogue waves above 8m high.
· (FCU)-A is an active unit providing dry space for electric generators and system electric protective and control equipment and spaced at 2m. It is fixed on top of 2-(FCU)-D units. PV cells are installed at the roof.
Ø Hermetically sealed and ventilated with fresh air supply fan and pipes extending 2m above the roof and provided with a hermetically sealed access door.
Ø Rogue Waves above 8m height are easily handled.
· (FCU)-Levels; (FCU)-A deck and (FCU)-D roof are at 6-m above (MSL) to handle waves up to 8-m high.
· “Buoyant Floats” (BF) are provided as described under wave energy extraction below.
· Vehicular Causeway for 2-way traffic connects wind turbines in a wind turbine farm.
· Assembly, the whole system is assembled at the shoreline, floated and towed to location for anchoring to the seabed anchor with all equipment installed and ready for operation.
· Tether Lines fix the (FXFL) to the anchor blocks resting at the seabed. They extend to the (FCU)-A deck for adjusting their lengths.
· Ratchet Winch is provided at the deck of (FCU)-A to adjust the tension due to movement of the anchor blocks.
· Anchor Blocks are hollow cuboids resting at the seabed at depths beyond 30-meters and can be floated and removed at the end of project life. Air/Water Hoses extending from each anchor block are provided to sink and position the anchor at the seabed by filling them with water, or compressed air.
· Dimensions are a function of project size, sea states and location.
· Modular Units with minimal cutting and/or welding at site.
· Assembly is completely performed at the shoreline, floated and towed to location ready for anchor to the seabed with all equipment including the wind turbine ready for operation.
· Water Depth at the shoreline assembly area is less than 4m deep.
· Tether Lines for anchoring the (TLP) to the seabed are installed at 40m spacing.
· Anchors at the sea bed can be floated and disposed of at the end of project life.
F. DESIGN Structure
Design is based on simple engineering principles, using materials and equipment available on the market with proven quality and performance.
Dynamic Wind Forces are based on the formula . The values used for Cd at high wind speeds to be verified.
Alternate Materials such as high strength composite alloy materials are open for investigation.
Alternate Layout of the (TLP) are open for investigation.
Manufacturers of wind turbines to provide respective weights and dynamic wind forces acting on the Blades, Nacelle and Support, together with wind turbine diameter at top and base of the Support.
Rogue Wave heights 18m and above are easily handled. 2m spacing of (FCU)-A reduces horizontal bending moments.
Hermetically Sealed (FCU)’s are used in rough sea areas and to handle rogue waves.
Solar Energy is extracted at the support and at the spacing between wind turbine supports at calm seas where rogue waves do not exceed 8m high. .
a. MOMENTS, WEIGHTS & UPLIFT
1. support, wind turbine.
o Weight 839.14 tons
o Uplift 2,509 tons.
o Foot Print 1,600 square m (40x40m).
o Dynamic moments 46,034 ton-meter at 240 Km/hour.
o Resisting moment 56,525 ton-meter
2. 250m Spacing
o Weight 2,178 tons
o Uplift 2,500 tons.
o Foot Print 10,000 (250x40) Sqm.
o Dynamic moments 43,404 ton-meter at 240 Km/hour.
o Resisting moment 50,000 ton-meter
G. DESIGN Energy Extraction
Design is based on simple engineering formulae whose results can be easily verified.
Energies are extracted as one coordinated system from; sea waves, ebb/tidal currents, solar, thermal and wind.
Sea Wave energy extraction for different (BF) diameters (1.0 to 2.0m) and wave heights (1 to 8m). .
Scalability, the system is scalable to Utility level.
a. OUTPUTS Summary
For sets of 4-BF’s with diameter ranging from 1 to 2.00m and waves up to 8m high.
Energy Extraction from wave, tidal and solar, 1,779,393 KW-hour per year at each wind turbine support.
1. support, Floating wind turbine.
· 579 KW Power from Wave, tidal and solar,
· 1,779,393 KWh per year,
· 6,000 KW Power from wind turbine,
· 17,280,000 KWh per year from wind turbine,
· 19,059,393 KWh total per year; WT, Marine and Solar,
· 2,217 cubic meters, compressed air volume.
2. Spacing 250m.
· 4,027 KW; Power from Wave, tidal and solar,
· 12,461,506 KWh per year, Marine and Solar and,
· 1,844 cubic meters, compressed air volume.
3. 30 MW WIND FARM, Totals 60 MW WIND FARM, Totals
· 20,135 KW, wave, tidal, solar 40,269 KW, wave, tidal, solar
· 30,000 KW Wind 60,000 Wind
· 50,135 KW Total 100,269 KW Total
· 145,142,986 KWh/Year 302,747,479 KWh/Year
· 18,462 Cum Comp. Air 38,767 Cum Comp. Air
H. DETAILED Energy Extraction
The (FloatNRG) system is based on simple engineering principles, using materials and equipment available on the market with proven quality and performance.
1. Wave Energy consists of Potential and Kinetic energies together with Horizontal energy. The system extracts all of these energies as follows:
1. Wave Front, a (BF) follows wave undulations develops an uplift that pulls it up for a distance proportional to the wave height. The work done is directly converted to KW output at the generator.
a. (BF) Converts wave undulations directly to rotary motion through an uplift reversing pulley located below the trough line of the wave and a power pulley located at the (FCU)-A deck. A continuous toothed line transfers the pull between the pulleys to directly drive a step up gear directly coupled to an electric generator at the dry deck.
b. (BF) Diameter, generator power output is automatically calculated for (BF) diameters; 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00m, using File-2 XLS Spread Sheet.
c. (BF)’s are installed in Sets of 4-(BF)’s installed in line with the incoming wave. The number of (BF)’s in a set can be increased above 4-units.
d. The (BF)’s act as point absorbers.
e. The 4-(BF)‘s of each set are connected through a common transmission shaft to drive one generator located at the (FCU)-A deck. The connecting step-up gear is hermetically sealed.
2. Wave Lee side downward water flow with its kinetic energy is channeled by means of a vertical shroud through a unidirectional hydro-turbine to develop electric power. The hydro-turbine also acts as an ebb/tide energy extraction and is located below the trough line of the wave.
3. Wave Horizontal forces are considerable and water flow speeds may reach 1.7m per second.
a. Floating Hydro-Turbine tubular in shape is fixed through a swinging link to the (FCU)-D column, automatically follows wave undulations and extracts:
i. Wave horizontal kinetic energy and,
ii. Ebb/Tidal Energy.
iii. Vanes of the hydro-turbine drop through a slot and are vertically locked preventing horizontal swinging while at the top of the hydro turbine and drop while at the bottom to allow horizontal swinging motion.
iv. Generator is located inside the hydro-turbine. Its output is transmitted to the common DC bus at the (FCU)-A deck.
b. Additional Energy Extraction is investigated by utilizing the swinging action of the link between the hydro turbine and the (FCU) column to drive an electric generator.
2. Ebb/Tidal energy is extracted using the same wave lee side hydro-turbine above. The water flow is channeled through two horizontal shrouds to increase water flow speeds, provide unidirectional rotation and extract kinetic energies from the ebb/tide water flow and kinetic energy from the lee side of the wave.
This common hydro-turbine is supported by the (FXFL)’s and is located below the trough line (-6m) of the sea wave to handle an 8-m high wave. It is located nearest to the water surface where tidal water flow velocity is maximum.
3. Solar Energy (PV) cells are installed at the roofs of the (FCU)-A and (FCU)-D. at 9m and 6m above (MSL) respectively.
4. Wind Energy is extracted by a floating wind turbine as provided by others.
· No Competitors.
· Additional Energy; 1,779,393 KW-hour per year is extracted at each floating wind turbine support.
· Energy Storage; 2,217 cubic meters are provided at each wind turbine support in the form of compressed air.
· Modular fabrication and assembly.
· Shoreline Assembly, using modular units, complete with equipment installed and ready for operation. .
· Wave Energies are extracted from wave front and lee sides and from horizontal energy.
· Tidal and Wave Energies are extracted using one common hydro-turbine.
· Ebb/Tidal Turbines are installed below at 6m below the trough line of the wave, and at the water surface and are also used to extract wave lee side kinetic energy.
· Sea Wave and Ebb/Tidal Energies extracted from underside of oil/gas platforms.
· Energy Storage in the form of compressed air stored in the (FXFL)’s of the floating wind turbine supports and in the (FXFL)’s of the spacing between the floating wind turbine supports of a wind turbine farm.
· Floating Vehicular Causeway connecting wind turbines in an offshore wind turbine farm.
To appreciate the FloatNRG system, suggest a review and comparison be made with existing systems and with proposed systems by others. .
The following are a summary of the possible areas of utilization.
1. Coordinated offshore energy extraction from: waves, ebb/tides, solar, thermal, deep sea cold water and wind turbines,
2. Floating Wind Turbines,
3. Floating Islands,.
4. Floating Access Causeway connecting existing and/or new wind turbine farm turbines for ease of operation and maintenance and for support of electric transmission lines between the wind farms and the shore.
5. Floating islands for use as:
a. Residential developments
b. Conventional power plants.
c. Electric Sub-stations
6. Floating marine laboratory
For monitoring sea and offshore wind states, testing different offshore energy extraction systems from; sea waves, ebb/tide and thermal systems
K. RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI)
Enough data is provided to calculate providing and installing the FloatNRG system, including operation and maintenance costs per year, and eventually
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